The state is mainly populated by the Hausa, Fulani and the Mangawa, Badawa and Ngizimawa which are dialects of the kanuri language. They constitute significant percentages in Birniwa, Guri and Kiri kasamma local government areas. There are other settled tribes both from within and outside Nigeria inhibiting in almost all the local Government areas of the state with the highest concentration in the state capital.
Islam is the predominant religion of the people with over ninety nine percent (99%) of the population being practicing Muslims. Christian religion has its followers with settled tribes forming the larger percentage of its practitioners.
The rich cultural heritage of the people is reflected in their mode of dressings, music, dance, craftsmanship and hospitality. Hausa culture and tradition have overshadowed others but the Fulani, Mangawa, Ngizimawa and Badawa still maintain their cultures and tradition in their areas of concentration. These are mostly seen through their mode of dressing, food processing and pattern of settlement.
As practicing Muslims the Eid-el-fitr and Ed-el-kabir (sallah) celebrations are the main festivities of the people and these cuts across ethnic barriers being a period of celebration for all Muslims all over the world. The Ed-el-fitr is celebrated on the 1st of shawwal which is the nineth month in the islamic lunar calendar to mark the end of the Ramadan fast while Ed-el-kabir is marked on the 10th of Dhull Hajj, the 12th month of the Islamic lunar calendar. The 12th of Rabiul Awwal which is the 3rd month of the Islamic calendar is marked as a day for maulud celebrations to commemorate the birth of the Holy prophet Muhammad (S.A.W). The celebration is popularly tagged sallar Gani in Hadejia and Gumel Emirates due to the fanfare associated with it. Other festivals of the people include kokawa (Traditional wrestling) and Dambe (Traditional boxing) mostly performed at the end of the harvest season. The Sharo (Traditional flogging) is restricted to the Fulani community. Fishing festivals do also take place in the state periodically as at when organized.
ARTS AND CRAFTS
This is one area that had continued to play a dominant role in the socioeconomic well being of the people by providing gainful employment and complimenting the economic life of farming families. Some of the arts and crafts are weaving (raffia and cloth), pottery, smithing, tanning and leather works. Others are curving (calabash and wood), traditional textile and architecture.
According to the 2006 census, the State had a total population of over 4.3 million inhabitants. The population growth of the state is estimated at 3.5 % with about 48 % of the population falling under the age of fifteen. Out of the estimation about 2.9 million are considered to be productive adults. Eighty per cent (80%) of the population is found in the rural areas and is made up of mostly Hausa, Fulani and Manga (a Kanuri dialect). The pattern of human settlement is nucleated, with defined population centers. Cross border migration between Jigawa State and neighboring states and between the State and Niger Republic is common. Migration of people into the state is highest during the dry season when cattle herders from neighboring Niger Republic migrates to the south in search of pasture and water for their animals. Outward migration is a feature of the off farming season known as “cirani” during which people leave the state in search of jobs in the neighboring states, particularly Kano and some major cities in the country.
The state is divided into five emirates each administered by a traditional ruler called Emir (sarki) with District Heads, Village Heads and Ward Heads assisting them. The Emirs and District Heads, unlike other public functionaries, do not exercise political power but serve as custodians of culture and advisers to the Government on traditional and religious affairs. All the Emirs are first class title holders.
STATE POPULATION BY NPC (2007)
|S/NO||LOCAL GOVERNMENT NAME||POPULATION||-|
|5||BIRNIN KUDU||-||313, 373||-|
|15||KIRI KASAMMA||-||191, 523||-|
|16||KAFIN HAUSA||-||271, 058||-|
|20||MALAM MADORI||-||161, 413||-|
|25||SULE TANKARKAR||-||130, 849||-|
|TOTAL =||4, 348,649||-|