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BACKGROUND HISTORY

HISTORY

The state was created on Tuesday August 27, 1991, when the Federal Military Government under the General Ibrahim Babangida announced the creation of nine additional states in the country bringing the total number of states then to thirty. The announcement was given a legal backing through the; State Creation and Transitional Provisions Decree No. 37 of 1991.

Excised from Kano State it covers a total land area of about 22,410sq Km. It is bordered on the West by Kano State, on the East by Bauchi and Yobe States and on the North by Katsina and Yobe States and the Republic of Niger.

ETHNIC COMPOSITION

The state is mainly populated by the Hausa, Fulani and the Mangawa, Badawa and Ngizimawa which are dialects of the kanuri language. They constitute significant percentages in Birniwa, Guri and Kiri kasamma local government areas. There are other settled tribes both from within and outside Nigeria inhibiting in almost all the local Government areas of the state with the highest concentration in the state capital.

RELIGION

Islam is the predominant religion of the people with over ninety nine percent (99%) of the population being practicing Muslims. Christian religion has its followers with settled tribes forming the larger percentage of its practitioners.

CULTURE

The rich cultural heritage of the people is reflected in their mode of dressings, music, dance, craftsmanship and hospitality. Hausa culture and tradition have overshadowed others but the Fulani, Mangawa, Ngizimawa and Badawa still maintain their cultures and tradition in their areas of concentration. These are mostly seen through their mode of dressing, food processing and pattern of settlement.

FESTIVALS

As practicing Muslims the Eid-el-fitr and Ed-el-kabir (sallah) celebrations are the main festivities of the people and these cuts across ethnic barriers being a period of celebration for all Muslims all over the world. The Ed-el-fitr is celebrated on the 1st of shawwal which is the nineth month in the islamic lunar calendar to mark the end of the Ramadan fast while Ed-el-kabir is marked on the 10th of Dhull Hajj, the 12th month of the Islamic lunar calendar. The 12th of Rabiul Awwal which is the 3rd month of the Islamic calendar is marked as a day for maulud celebrations to commemorate the birth of the Holy prophet Muhammad (S.A.W). The celebration is popularly tagged sallar Gani in Hadejia and Gumel Emirates due to the fanfare associated with it. Other festivals of the people include kokawa (Traditional wrestling) and Dambe (Traditional boxing) mostly performed at the end of the harvest season. The Sharo (Traditional flogging) is restricted to the Fulani community. Fishing festivals do also take place in the state periodically as at when organized.

ARTS AND CRAFTS

This is one area that had continued to play a dominant role in the socioeconomic well being of the people by providing gainful employment and complimenting the economic life of farming families. Some of the arts and crafts are weaving (raffia and cloth), pottery, smithing, tanning and leather works. Others are curving (calabash and wood), traditional textile and architecture.

POPULATION

According to the 2006 census, the State had a total population of over 4.3 million inhabitants. The population growth of the state is estimated at 3.5 % with about 48 % of the population falling under the age of fifteen. Out of the estimation about 2.9 million are considered to be productive adults. Eighty per cent (80%) of the population is found in the rural areas and is made up of mostly Hausa, Fulani and Manga (a Kanuri dialect). The pattern of human settlement is nucleated, with defined population centers. Cross border migration between Jigawa State and neighboring states and between the State and Niger Republic is common. Migration of people into the state is highest during the dry season when cattle herders from neighboring Niger Republic migrates to the south in search of pasture and water for their animals. Outward migration is a feature of the off farming season known as “cirani” during which people leave the state in search of jobs in the neighboring states, particularly Kano and some major cities in the country.

STATE POPULATION BY NPC (2007)

S/N LGA POPULATION
1 AUYO 132001
2 BIRNIWA 142329
3 BABURA 208101
4 BUJI 97371
5 BIRNIN KUDU 313373
6 DUTSE 246143
7 GUMEL 107161
8 GWARAM 272582
9 GWIWA 124517
10 GAGARAWA 80394
11 GURI 115018
12 GARKI 152233
13 HADEJIA 105628
14 JAHUN 229094
15 KIRI KASAMMA 191523
16 KAFIN HAUSA 271058
17 KAZAURE 161494
18 KIYAWA 172913
19 KAUGAMA 127956
20 MALAM MADORI 161413
21 MIGA 128424
22 MAIGATARI 179715
23 RONI 77819
24 RINGIM 192024
25 SULE TANKARKAR 130849
26 TAURA 131757
27 YANKWASHI 95759
  TOTAL 4,348,649

Topography

The topography of the state is generally flat with the northern, central, and eastern parts covered with undulating sand dunes running in the Southwest to Northeast direction. The area around the state capital Dutse is very rocky with some low hills. The southern and western parts of the state around Birnin Kudu and Kazaure have the highest elevations with hills as high as 600 millimeters above sea level.

The state is bisected by the Hadejia River and traverses the state from the west to the east through Hadejia-Nguru wetlands and empties into Lake Chad.

The state lies between latitudes 11oN and 13oN and longitudes 8oE and 10o35\\\'E with a tropical climate while the temperature varies at different times. High temperatures are normally recorded between the months of April and September. The daily minimum and maximum temperatures are 15 degree and 35 degree Celsius. The rainy season lasts from May to September with average rainfall of between 600 millimeters to 1000 millimeters. The southern part of the state has a higher rainfall percentage than the northern part.

The state is situated within the Sudan savannah vegetation zone, but there are traces of Guinea savannah in the southern part of the state. Its total forest covers about 5% due to rainfall characteristics and deforestation due primarily to use of wood for cooking.

The name Jigawa is a Hausa word used to describe a vast loamy but non-marshy soil.

ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE

With a centrally controlled Government from the state capital Dutse, the state has twenty seven (27) local government council’s three senatorial Districts, eleven Federal constituencies and thirty (30) state assembly constituencies as enshrined in the 1999 constitution of the federal Republic of Nigeria.

As presently constituted by the 1999 constitution, the Executive arm is headed by the state Governor, Alhaji Muhammad Badaru Abubakar as the chief Executive elected under the All Progressive Congress (APC) and is principally in charge of day to day running of its affairs with his deputy Alhaji Ibrahim Hassan Hadejia and members of the state Executive council assisting. The Legislature which is responsible for law making is headed by the Speaker Honorable Idris Garba (Kareka) with other House leaders supporting him while the Judiciary charged with interpreting laws has the chief Judge, Justice Aminu Sabo as the State Chief Judge and is equally the chairman of the state judicial service commission.

As it is the Executive arm which is in charge of the day to running of state affairs is organized into ministries, Agencies and Parastatals. All the ministries have active programs that focus on education, economic and Agricultural development, land management, environmental protection and human related activities.

Policy decisions are taken by the Executive council and the responsibility of implementing such lies with commissioners through their respective ministries and Agencies.

Leadership

Since its creation the state had been administered by four military personnel and two civilian elected Governors.

S/N NAME PERIOD
1 COLONEL OLAYINKA SULE MILITARY ADMINISTRATOR AUGUST 91-DECEMBER 91
    2 ALH. ALI SAAD B/KUDU CIVILIAN JANUARY 92-NOVEMBER 93
3 COLONEL IBRAHIM ALIYU MILITARY ADMINISTRATOR DECEMBER 93- AUGUST 96
4 LT.COL. RA SHEKONI MILITARY ADMINISTRATOR AUGUST 96- AUGUST 98
5 LT.COL. ZA MAIMALARI MILITARY ADMINISTRATOR AUGUST 98- MAY 99
6 ALH.(DR) IBRAHIM S. TURAKI CIVILIAN MAY 99- MAY 2007
7 ALHAJI SULE LAMIDO CIVILIAN MAY 2007-2015
8 ALHAJI MUHAMMAD BADARU ABUBAKAR mni MAY 2016- TO DATE

LOCAL GOVERNMENTS

By the 1999 constitution the state has twenty seven Local Government area councils headed by elected chairmen and assisted by councilors elected on the platform of a political party. The implementation of programmes of each local government is the joint responsibility of councilors with various portfolios who constitute the council with the Executive chairman as supervisor and a vice assisting.

LOCAL GOVERNMENTS AREAS AND HEADQUARTERS

S/N NAME HEADQUARTERS
1 AUYO AUYO
2 BIRNIWA BIRNIWA
3 BABURA BABURA
4 BUJI GANTSA
5 BIRNIN KUDU BIRNIN KUDU
6 DUTSE DUTSE
7 GUMEL GUMEL
8 GWARAM GWARAM
9 GWIWA GWIWA
10 GAGARAWA GAGARAWA
11 GURI GURI
12 GARKI GARKI
13 HADEJIA HADEJIA
14 JAHUN JAHUN
15 KIRI KASAMMA KIRI KASAMMA
16 KAFIN HAUSA KAFIN HAUSA
17 KAZAURE KAZAURE
18 KIYAWA KIYAWA
19 KAUGAMA KAUGAMA
20 MALAM MADORI MALAM MADORI
21 MIGA MIGA
22 MAIGATARI MAIGATARI
23 RONI RONI
24 RINGIM RINGIM
25 SULE TANKARKAR SULE TANKARKAR
26 TAURA TAURA
27 YANKWASHI KARKARNA

TRADITIONAL STRUCTURE

The state is divided into five emirates each administered by a traditional ruler called Emir (sarki) with District Heads, Village Heads and Ward Heads assisting them. The Emirs and District Heads, unlike other public functionaries, do not exercise political power but serve as custodians of culture and advisers to the Government on traditional and religious affairs. All the Emirs are first class title holders.

S/N NAMES EMIRATE REIGN
1 ALHAJI ADAMU ABUBAKAR MAJE (CHAIRMAN COUNCIL OF CHIEFS) HADEJIA 19..-
2 ALHAJI NAJIB HUSSEINI ADAMU CON KAZAURE 19..-
3 ALHAJI AHMAD MUHAMMAD SANI 11CON GUMEL 19..-
4 ALHAJI SAYYADI MAHMUD CON RINGIM 19..-
5 ALHAJI (DR) NUHU MUHAMMED SANUSI DUTSE 19..-

OVERNMENT INDUSTRIAL PROJECTS

TOURIST ATTRACTIONS

BANKS IN THE STATE